S. Tangach. Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin.
Atomic absorption standards start at exact concentrations; it is easy to make a more exact dilution series with them order cheap provera line women's health clinic olympia wa. When testing for iridium chloride by this skin test method discount provera 5 mg on-line breast cancer 5k nyc, I was able to detect 3025 molecules! Troubleshooting: Always extend your set until you get a negative result (this should happen by at least bottle #18). Sensitivity of Pollutant-In-Product Testing Get some slides of Salmonellas and Shigellas and find some milk that tests positive to at least one. Make a dilution series of the milk up to bottle #14, being careful not to shake the bottles. It was the same for toxic elements starting with standard solutions, about 1000 µg/ml, showing this method is less sensitive than skin testing. Microscopy Lesson Purpose: To observe fluke stages in saliva and urine with a microscope. A total of 100x magnification is satisfactory for the four common flukes, Fasciolopsis, sheep liver fluke, human liver fluke and pancreatic fluke. For sanitation purposes (wiping table tops, slides, micro- scope and your hands) a 50% to 70% alcohol solution (not rubbing alcohol! Dilute this with equal parts of filtered water to get 18½%, which is close enough to 20%, for the purpose of “fixing” (killing) the specimens. Ask a pharmacist to prepare Lugol’s Iodine Solution for you, as follows: • 44 grams (1½ oz) iodine crystals • 88 grams (3 oz) potassium iodide crystals Dissolve both in 1 liter (quart) filtered water. Pour the 20% formaldehyde into a small amber bottle or other receptacle to a depth of about 1/8 inch. The person to be tested is asked to salivate into the bottle so the organisms are immediately “fixed” without under- going cooling first. Compare objects you observe with specimens obtained on slides from bio- logical supply companies. Persons with terminal untreated cancer have many more fluke stages than relatively well persons. Cancer victims with cervical or prostate cancer will show higher numbers of stages in urine than other cancer types. Slides may be stained in either of these two ways: • Put a drop of “fixed” urine on a slide. Taking Pictures Of What You See You may be unsure of what you see even if you have the microscope slides of labeled flukes and their stages to study and compare. In real life, they vary so much in shape and size that absolute identification is difficult without experience. Unfortu- nately in a few hours, just as you are getting proficient, your magnificent specimens will be drying out and unfit for observa- tion. To preserve them longer you can seal the edges by painting around the coverslip with fingernail clear enamel. Or dribble hot sealing wax along the edges and then place them in sealed plastic bags (one per bag). Make an applicator from a piece of coat hanger wire bent in the shape of a small square to fit around the coverslip and a handle. To take pictures of what you see under the microscope you will need a photomicrographic camera, which costs $200. Even photographs do not scientifically prove identity of parasite stages, but it is very good evidence. Proof would require that the saliva or urine sample could be cultured and seen to produce the known parasite stages. If you can purchase one that reads out the frequency for you in numbers (digital type) and lets you produce a fraction of a kilohertz by turning a dial, it meets your most elementary needs. It should also be possible to set it on positive offset (100% positive) and still give you 5 volts. The advantages of having a frequency generator are that you can do your own diagnosing. The Theory Every living animal and every cell type produces its own frequencies and responds to these frequencies as well. When the animal is alive it produces them, when it is dead it still responds to some of them. The goblet “picks up” on that particular frequency of sound because its own “resonant” frequency is exactly the same. There is not merely a structural and chemical difference between the living and non living. But we can observe and use our observations to track down bacteria and other parasites. We can measure our health quantitatively and perhaps in the future predict life expectancy. The Syncrometer traps the frequencies that match the ones in the material on the test plates and delivers them to an audio speaker in a range that you are able to hear. Instead of test tis- sues or pathogens, we are now going to use pure test fre- quencies! The lead coming from the frequency generator will have two connections, usually red and black (ground). If the two from your body and the generator are the same, the circuit will oscillate, and you will hear resonance. The reinforcement will put oscillations or resonance in the circuit, the same as you are accustomed to hearing with the Syncrometer. Lesson Nineteen Purpose: Killing the intestinal fluke with a frequency gen- erator. Materials: A frequency generator, two handholds with alli- gator clip leads for them. You have killed whatever tiny invader has a resonant frequency the same as the setting on the generator. If your frequency generator has a positive offset capability, you can use it like a zapper, and a single session will kill all pathogens, provided it is 100% offset and can give at least 5 volts at this setting. But even a small percentage of negative voltage will ruin this effect and do more harm than good! To be certain your generator is set correctly it would be best to observe the output on an oscilloscope. Discussion: Persons using a Syncrometer might have already tried putting a small insect on one of the plates. Even the tiniest ant placed in a glass bottle or plastic baggy will resonate the circuit. Obviously the living thing is affecting the circuit differently before and after death. To find its frequency you must add another frequency that will reinforce or interfere with the frequency already on the plate. Start testing well above the suspected range taking big steps downward until you reach a resonant frequency.
Although the above nomenclature is now accepted it might have been better proven 2.5mg provera womens health horizons syracuse, as suggested by Sibley and Monsma (1992) discount provera generic 3 menstrual cycles in one month, to retain D1 and D2 to represent the two families and then subdivide them as D1A for (D1), D1B for (D5), then D2A for (D2), D2B for (D3)andD2C for (D4), even though variants of all five have been found. Blocked by neuroleptics Ð similar in effectiveness to their binding affinities (b). Notes: Studies with various agonists and antagonists showed that the effects on (a) differed in potency from both (b) and (c) and were thus associated with a receptor (D1) different from that (D2) linked to (b) and (c). The human D2 receptor shows a protein sequence which is 96% identical to that of the rat D2 and although the similarity is only 91% between the human and rat D1 receptor, it is 96% in the transmembrane region. It is differences in the amino-acid sequences in this region that primarily justify the classification into two groups (D1 and D2) rather than their total amino-acid number. Basically the D1 (and D5) receptors differ from the D2 (D3,D)4 in having a much shorter third cytoplasmic loop and a much longer intracellular C-terminus (Fig. Based on amino-acid sequencing the D3 receptor is only 53% homologous with the D2 (but 75% in the transmembrane region) while with D4 it is only 41% (56%). The D5 receptor shows 50% homology with the D1 rising to 80% in the transmembrane region. So- called short and long variants of the D2 receptor (D2S and D2L) have also been discovered, differing by the presence or absence of a run of 29 amino acids in the third intracellular loop. The figure attempts to highlight the major differences between extra- and intracellular loops, especially the intracellular loops between transmembrane sections 5 and 6 and the much longer C terminal of the D1 compared with the D2 receptor. The thickened length of the D2 receptor represents the amino-acid sequence missing in the short form of the receptor. To some extent these requirements are cyclic since the establishment of different functions (1) depends on the availability of appropriate drugs (2). Since receptors can be expressed in cell lines the affinity of drugs for the different receptors can, however, be established, as can their cellular actions. D1 receptor family D1 Highest expression in human striatum and nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle but also some in cortex and hypothalamus. In the striatum 50% of medium sized striato-nigral neurons, which also express substance P, express them. Antagonists [ [ Clozapine Number High Low High Low Low Distribution Striatum [ [ Nuc. D5 Highest concentration in hippocampus and hypothalamus but much lower expression overall. The loss of specific D2 antagonist binding in the striatum after lesions of the afferent nigro-striatal tract indicates their presynaptic autoreceptor role on terminals there. Other lesion studies have also established D2 receptors on other inputs such as the cortico striatal tract. As with D1 receptors some 50% of striatal medium-sized cells contain them but they are different neurons as they co-express enkephalin rather than substance P. The importance of this difference in the therapy of Parkinsonism is taken up later (Chapter 15). They increase K conductance (hyperpolarise neurons) but also inhibit Ca2 entry through voltage-sensitive channels, probably directly. No pharmacological differences have been established between the long or short forms of the D2 receptor. Mainly in limbic regions (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle) but also in hypothalamus. D4 Again very few in number compared with D2 but located in frontal cortex, mid- brain and amygdala. Comparison of the K1 values of various agonists and antagonists for the different receptors (Table 7. Since only the latter is an agonist, however, their value in establishing the roles of the D3 and D4 receptors is limited, although the high affinity of clozapine for D4 receptors and their location in the frontal cortex has been considered, somewhat controversially, to be of significance in the aetiology and therapy of schizophrenia (see Chapter 17). This inhibitory response is slow in onset (up to 15 s) and long in duration (possibly minutes). Generally these studies lacked specific agonists and antagonists used microintophoresis which is not really quantitative and with extracellular recording gave little information on the state of polarisation of the neuron. Stimulation of the substantia nigra invariably produces a monosynaptic depolarisation in them that is blocked by haloperidol, but which may proceed to a hyperpolarisation, if the stimulus is strong enough. By contrast, the D2 agonist quinpirol produced a less marked biphasic effect in which inhibition dominated. An observed D1-sensitive suppression of the sodium current and a shift of the inactivating voltage in a hyperpolarising direction, together with a depression of certain Ca2 currents, would make the neuron less excitable. Reproduced by permission from Dalley (1992) inactivation curves and an increased opening of a potassium conductance (see Calabresi et al. The D1 receptor is primarily linked to the activation of adenylate cyclase and then protein kinase A. The response to its activation will therefore depend on the ion channels and other proteins modulated by the kinase which can vary from one neuron to another. Since the D2 receptor is not so closely associated with just one G-protein, this gives it the potential for even more effects (see Greenhoff and Johnson 1997). They are also used to reduce the undesirable effects of prolactinaemia (high plasma prolactin), such as amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. Some are used to control drug- and fever-induced vomiting and although any D2 antagonist is effective, proclorper- azine, metoclopramide and domperidone are more generally used. As a reasonably lipophilic compound amphetamine can enter the vesicles where being a weak base it takes up H ions. Its role in emesis and as the prolactin release inhibitory factor have been adequately covered above. Since the animal moves away from the dominating active side it induces ipsilateral rotation (i. Thus animals move away from the side with the most responsive and active striatum. It appears that stereotypy is due to activation of the nigrostriatal pathway as it is absent after lesion of the substantia nigra and follows apomorphine and amphetamine injection into the striatum, whereas locomotor responses to amphetamine are reduced by lesions to A10 and can be induced by its injection into the nucleus accumbens. Recordings from neurons so identified show that they have differing firing patterns. Reinforcement is the manner in which one event (stimulus) strengthens the likelihood of its repetition, i. Rats with electrodes implanted in certain brain regions appeared to find the stimulation mediated through them to be rewarding (pleasurable) and so would seek out whatever part of their surroundings they associated with it. Animals also learn to press a lever to initiate the administration (injection) of certain drugs in preference to obtaining food or water and will continue this to a point of intoxication. Rather it should be considered to mediate the higher-order motor and sensory processes that are important for the activation of aspects of motivation and responsiveness to conditioned stimuli. Thus only D2 antagonists have anti-emetic activity and only D2 agonists, like bromocriptine, reduce plasma prolactin levels. In this condition, however, some D1 stimulation may augment the effect of the D2 agonists (Chapter 14), suggesting a synergism between the two receptors.
Chirality is important in context of ordered phases as well discount provera american express pregnancy 70 effaced, for example the addition of a small amount of an optically active molecule to a nematic phase (a phase that has long range orientational order of molecules) transforms that phase to a chiral nematic phase (or cholesteric phase) best 10 mg provera womens health houston. Chirality in context of such phases in polymeric fluids has also been  studied in this context. In this case, the Ru atom may be regarded as a stereogenic center, with the complex having 2+ point chirality. Resolved hexol is significant as being the first compound devoid of carbon to display optical activity. Chirality of amines Tertiary amines (see image) are chiral in a way similar to carbon compounds: The nitrogen atom bears four distinct substituents counting the lone pair. However, the energy barrier for the inversion of the stereocenter is, in general, about 30 kJ/mol, which means that the two stereoisomers are rapidly interconverted at room temperature. The molecular formula is identical, but the orientation of two chemical groups is different, as they are mirror images of each other. The two isomers can be distinguished by shining a beam of polarised light on the compounds and measuring rotation with a polarimeter. One optical isomer will rotate the plane of polarised light to the right and the other optical isomer will rotate it to the left. All naturally occurring sugars are right handed (for example dextrose which is D-glucose) and all naturally occurring amino acids are left handed (for example L-phenylalanine). Why life has evolved to favour just one isomer of each of these is a mystery, but the enzymes responsible for metabolising these nutrients can only recognise the naturally occurring form of each. Other examples of optical isomers which we can distinguish between are found in the plant hydrocarbons carvone and limonene. R-carvone however smells like spearmint and is the principle constituent of spearmint oil. D-limonene is found in the rind of citrus fruits and is responsible for the orange/lemon smell. Our smell receptors are obviously able to detect a difference between the two optical isomers. However the collagen triple helix in connective tissue is always a left handed helix. You can check whether any helix has a right or left handed turn by using these definitions - try it yourself on spiral staircases, corkscrews, fusilli pasta and even knitting yarn. The shoots of some plants such as honeysuckle twist to the right (clockwise) whereas the shoots of others such as bindweed twist to the left (anticlockwise). The doomed marriage of these two plants was the subject of the classic song "Misalliance" by Flanders and Swann. In fact the Latin name of the ubiquitous climbing plant Common Ivy is Hedera helix, which itself means twisting. The soft curly tendrils of clinging plants such as grape vines and beans however, can have their helices reversed when the tendril touches a support. This so-called "tendril perversion" fascinated Charles Darwin and he wrote about it at length in his book "The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants". When the tendril starts to curl and tighten up, since neither the stem nor the support can rotate, the total twist in the tendril cannot change. Therefore, as the tendril curls on itself, the coils of the spiral are reversed at some point and the two opposite spirals are separated by a small straight segment. This phenomenon can be likened in the modern sense to a coiled telephone cable, which is first completed extended, untwisted and then slowly released. There are many examples of handedness in synthetic molecules as well all right handed- try looking on the labels of toiletries, household chemicals and medicines when you go shopping. Left-handed (or negatively-refracting) materials turn out to transform space for electromagnetic fields and their vacuum fluctuations [2,10]. Philbin, Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials, New Journal of Physics 9, 254 (2007). Philbin, Quantum optics of spatial transformation media, Journal of Optics A (in press). Full, Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, 12252 (2002). Boersma, A maritime analogy of the Casimir effect, American Journal of Physics 64, 539 (1996). Casimir, On the attraction between two perfectly conducting plates, Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, B51, 793 (1948). Capasso, Quantum Mechanical Actuation of Microelectromechanical Systems by the Casimir Force, Science 291, 1941 (2001). Philbin, General relativity in electrical engineering, New Journal of Physics 8, 247 (2006). Pendry, Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens, Physical Review Letters 85, 3966 (2000). Roukes, Quantum physics: Casimir force changes sign, Nature 419, 119 References 1. Researches on the molecular asymmetry of natural organic products, English translation of French original, published by Alembic Club Reprints (Vol. On the rotation of plane of polarisation of electric waves by a twisted structure, Proc. The Cure For All Cancers Including Over 100 Case Histories of Persons Cured Plus two revolutionary electronic circuits, one to diagnose and monitor progress, the other to zap parasites and bacteria! The cause is a certain parasite, for which I have found evidence in every can- cer case regardless of the type of cancer. So lung cancer is not caused by smoking, colon cancer is not caused by a low- roughage diet, breast cancer is not caused by a fatty diet, retinal blastoma is not caused by a rare gene, and pancreatic cancer is not caused by alcohol consumption. The dis- covery of the cause and cure of all cancers has stood the test of time and here it is! You may not have time to read this entire book first if you have cancer and are scheduled for surgery, chemotherapy or radiation treatment. You may wish to skip the first pages which describe how a parasite and a solvent cause cancer to develop. Go directly to the instructions on eliminating the parasite with herbs (Cancer Curing Recipe, page 19) or with electricity (Zapping Parasites, page 30). It does not matter how far progressed the cancer is— you can still stop it immediately. After you have stopped the cancer, you can turn your atten- tion to getting well (Part 2). Read the case histories to see how easy it is to stop even terminal cancers (Part 3). But if you do not wish to make your doctor angry, you could follow her or his wishes, too.