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It was men tioned that vitamin C also helps to reduce body glycosylation purchase precose overnight diabetes mellitus type 2 bahasa indonesia, which shows abnormali ties in the binding of sugars and proteins buy precose 50 mg mastercard diabetes test leeds. In addition vitamin C reduces the accumulation of sugar sorbitol which damages eyes and kidneys. Vitamin C lowers blood pressure and plasma cholesterol helping to keep the blood flowing and protected from oxidation in a synergistic action with vitamin E. Vitamin C also helps to prevent atherosclerosis through the synthesis of collagen in the arterial wall and prevent undesirable adhesion of leukocytes to the damaged artery. Supplementation with 2 g/day reduces the adhesion of monocytes to blood vessels, effec tively reverses the vasomotor dysfunction observed in patients with atherosclerosis. Risk is reduced by up to 62% in subjects consuming 700 mg/day compared with those consuming 60mg/day or less. Subjects with low plasma vitamin C levels have ele vated blood histamine and vitamin supplementation, reduces these levels. Bronchospasm Antioxidant (Kahn) Cataract (Jackes) Allergic process (Ruskin) Aging (Jackes) Blood pressure (Ringsdorff) Retinopathy (Crary) Constipation (Sindair) (Macular Degeneration) Probable association with menopause. Association of serum vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in serum or plasma in different symptoms and diseases. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vita min C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1086107  Ascencio C. Gallstoneformation in guinea pigs under different dietary conditions: effect of vitamin C on bile acid pat tern. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Pharmacologic ascorbic acid concentrations selectively kill cancer cells: Action as a pro-drug to deliver hydrogen peroxide to tissues. Ascorbic acid may protect against human gastric cancer by scaveng ing mucosal oxygen radicals. Ms evidencia en contra del uso de vitaminas y antioxidantes en la pre vencin de enfermedades crnicas Evidencia Actualizacin en la Prctica Ambulato ria- 2002, 5(6): Nov-Dic  Hoffman-La Roche F. The regulation of prostaglandin E1 formation: A candi date for one of the fundamental mechanism involved in the actions of vitamin C. Interaction of vitamin C and selenium supplementation in the modification of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Biliary lipids, bile acids and gallstone formation in hypovitaminotic C guinea-pigs. Ascorbic Acid in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer Altern Med Rev 1998; 3(3):174-186  Kessler S. The determination of dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbic acid in the serum and sinovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ascorbic Acid Reduces Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Hypertension. The composition of foods, 14th edition Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1985. Quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Anal. Effect of orange juice intake on vitamin C concentrationsand biomarkers of antioxi dant status in humansAm J Clin Nutr 2003; 78:45460. Among the functions that it performs are the following: the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, and the syn thesis of proteins, coagulation factors, and biliary salts. Eighty percent of the hepatic paren chyma is made up of hepatocytes, which are the cells mainly responsible for maintaining every function that the liver in its entirety requires to sustain the bodys normal physiologi cal functions in general. The hepato cytes are disposed in the liver in groups denominated lobules, which have a central orifice comprised of the bile duct and by means of which the biliary salts are excreted. The anatom ical loss of the structure of the hepatic lobule is considered a symptom of severe damage to the liver; it can be accompanied by partial or total loss of some physiological function, as in the case of alcohol-related hepatic cirrhosis. Hepatic regeneration Liver regeneration is a fundamental response of the liver on encountering tissue damage. The complex interaction of factors that determine this response involves a stimulus (experi 2013 Morales-Gonzlez et al. This proliferation depends on the hepatocytes, epithelial bile cells, Kupffer cells, and Ito cells. The mechanisms of hepatic growth have been studied in detail in experimental models. In the latter, regeneration is induced whether by tissue resection (partial hepatectomy) or by death of the hepatocytes (toxic damage). Evidence that there is a humoral growth factor of the hepatocyte has been observed in animal models and in patients with liver disease from the 1980s. Ethanol On being ingested, alcohol (also called ethanol) produces a series of biochemical reactions that lead to the affectation of numerous organs involving economy, having as the endpoint the development of hepatic diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Despite that much is known about the physiopathological mechanisms that trigger ethanol within the or ganism, it has been observed that a sole mechanism of damage cannot fully explain all of the adverse effects that ethanol produces in the organism or in one organ in particular. A factor that is referred as playing a central role in the many adverse effects that ethanol exerts on the organism and that has been the focus of attention of many researchers is the excessive generation of molecules called free radicals, which can produce a condition known as oxidative stress, which triggers diverse alterations in the cells biochemical processes that can finally activate the mechanism of programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. Of particular importance for the objective of this chapter is the focus on a particular class of free radicals that are oxygen derivatives, because these are the main chemical entities that are produced within the organism and that affect it in general. Ethanol metabolism Ethanol is absorbed rapidly in the gastrointestinal tract; the surface of greatest adsorption is the first portion of the small intestine with 70%; 20% is absorbed in the stomach, and the re mainder, in the colon. Under optimal conditions, 80-90% of the ingested dose is completely absorbed within 60 minutes. Gender difference is a factor that modifies the distributed etha nol volume; this is due to its hydrosolubility and to that it is not distributed in body fats, which explains why in females this parameter is found diminished compared with males. Ethanol is eliminated mainly (> 90%) by the liver through the enzymatic oxidation path way; 5-10% is excreted without changes by the kidneys, lungs, and in sweat [14, 30]. Liver regeneration and ethanol Ethanol is a well known hepatotoxic xenobiotic because hepatotoxicity has been well docu mented in humans as well as in animals. Although aspects concerning the pathogenesis of liver damage have been widely studied, it is known that liver regeneration restores the func tional hepatic mass after hepatic damage caused by toxins. Suppression of the regenerating capacity of the liver by ethanol is the major factor of liver damage. Although the effects of acute or chronic administration of ethanol on the proliferative capacity of the liver to re generate itself has been studied, the precise mechanism by which ethanol affects hepatocel lular function and the regenerative process are poorly explained. Liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats represents an ideal model of con trolled hepatocellular growth. This surgical procedure has been sufficiently employed to study the factors than can be implicated in the growth of the liver.
In diurnal animals order precose on line amex diabetes in dogs holistic treatment, the onset of melatonin secretion is closely associated with the timing of sleep propensity order cheap precose line diabetes pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this reason, it is believed to play Health Sciences a part in sleep initiation as the trigger for opening the circadian sleep gate, thus acting as a sleep regulator . Wehumansareimmersedinanenvironmentcharacterized In this respect, the efcacy of melatonin supplementation to by repetitive rhythmic cycles . Conditions that are mod- combat sleep disorders is well known, especially in the elderly ifed by diferent temporal cycles include organic efciency, with their marked reduction in melatonin production . All of these may contribute to the observed and digestive functions) and behavioural (sleep/wake cycle, anti-aging potency of this natural agent . Melatonin diminishes Chronobiology is the discipline that studies the nature free radical formation at the mitochondrial level by reducing and function of biological rhythms, defned as the recurrence the leakage of electrons from the electron transport chain of any event within a biological system at roughly regular . The human bodys biological clocks, for exam- directly by exogenous administration or indirectly by includ- ple, are controlled by synchronization with signals from the ing vegetables rich in this compound in the diet, enhances external environment . It also stimulates a The entire spectrum of biological rhythms covers an number of antioxidative enzymes which metabolize reactive extremely wide range of frequencies . Tese are biological there is an elevated production of free radicals, this may have processes that have an endogenous, entrainable oscillation Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 3 of about 24 hours. The internal synchro- Chrononutrition nization provided by circadian clocks may be altered by Chronotherapy many factors, one of which is aging. During aging, any disturbance or imbalance in the Chronobiological relationship between the circadian and homeostatic systems + balance may lead to the impairment of numerous physiological processes. The vast major- all compounds with powerful antioxidant properties [23, ity of studies have focused on examining the homeostatic 29, 47]. The administration of tryptophan increases the regulation of the quantity and quality of food ingested. Tem- ulatory, anti-infammatory, and chronobiotic properties [50 poral aspects of this regulation have been far less studied 52]. Since these are functions with a circadian rhythmicity, they Knowledgeofthenatureandfunctionofbiological deteriorate during aging with the weakening of overt circa- rhythms is of practical as well as theoretical interest. Tat meal timing has major efects on refected in the growing number of applications of chronobi- thebodyhasledtotheconvictionthat,inchoosingfood,it ology published in the recent health sciences literature. One is not only convenient to consider its nutritional value, but such novel area of research is chronopharmacology. This is also its capacity to promote or hinder the normal functioning focused on the design and evaluation of drug delivery systems of the circadian cycles control systems (Table 1). In humans, that release a bioactive agent at a rhythm matching the bio- alterations have been detected in the overall expression of logical requirements of the treatment of a given disease . Compared drugs in order to synchronize the rhythms in disease activity with a control diet high in carbohydrates and low in fat, with the efcacy of a particular drug, thus allowing for its a very low carbohydrate, fat-rich diet has been found to optimal efcacy in the patient. However, the evidence on whether carbohydrates positively impact sleep quality is not completely consistent, since consuming carbohydrate mealswithhighorlowglycaemicloadsseemsnottoafect 3. Basis of Chrononutrition: Health Benefits any polysomnographically determined sleep index . Feeding behaviour is the frst element to nutrients can entrain the circadian rhythm, diet design must 4 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Table 1: Examples of antioxidant requirements according to chrononutrition principles. Tese ideas can the modulation of the immune and infammatory systems, be subsumed under the concept of chrononutrition. This helping to prevent infectious and infammatory diseases in concept refects that it is not only the content of food, the elderly . Finally, in 1997 the most signifcant phenol butalsothetimeofingestionandtheinteractionsofits in red wine, trans-resveratrol, was shown to prevent carcino- nutritional components which naturally contribute to the genesis in mice . Since then, this phytochemical has been proper functioning of the circadian system. Harmans free radical theory of aging posits that specifc health benefts of resveratrol range from 5 mg to oxidized macromolecules accumulate with age, resulting in 5 g, and some have considered additional compounds with decreased function and shortened life span . A major critical limitation reduction of oxidative stress has been found to be associated of most of the clinical research on resveratrol has been the with prolongation of life expectancy in many organisms [58 lack of trials examining the longer-term health efects of this 60]. Teexampleswehavebriefydiscussedaboveare oxidative stress, thereby strengthening the bodys antioxidant just a few of the more than several thousands of bioactive defences, can reduce the rate of aging and the risk of age- compounds that have been identifed in foodstufs from all associated diseases . Few of them have taken The possibility that mammalian life span could be signif- into account the chrononutritional properties responsible for icantly extended by diet modifcation was frst demonstrated the efectiveness of such compounds. In humans, the type inarodentstudypublishedbyMcCayandcoworkersin of food (macronutrient) is a temporally controlled variable. This seminal experiment showed that life span can be Once the nutrient enters the bloodstream, it may resemble extended by diet restriction without malnutrition, as opposed the behaviour of a drug. It is thus subject to the principles of to diet restriction with malnutrition which can have the chronopharmacology, the most important of which is that the opposite efect . Not only diet restriction, but also dietary time of day infuences both benefcial and unwanted efects. This is particularly the case in combating a variety of disorders and diseases in which there is an elevated production of free radicals . The antioxidant efects of these compounds have been demonstrated both in animal models and in humans. This augmentation was positively correlated with increases in Time of the day serum antioxidant capacity in both rats (Rattus norvegicus, a nocturnal animal) and ringdove (Streptopelia risoria,a Melatonin diurnal animal) and in both young and old age groups. Blacklines infammatory cytokines, especially in the old animals, by represent normal circadian patterns of melatonin and serotonin downregulating the levels of proinfammatory cytokines and secretion, while grey lines show a disturbed pattern due to aging upregulating those of anti-infammatory cytokines . Aging beverage may be attributed to the high melatonin content is a complex process. It is related to circadian rhythm disrup- of the Jerte Valley cherry, although the involvement of other tion with the resulting sleep disturbances andotherphys- antioxidants, such as polyphenols, cannot be ruled out. Tese include Given these results with animal models, tests were con- impaired nutrient absorption [94, 95], immunosenescence ducted with humans. It was found that both a diet enriched , decreased hormone levels , and neuronal death with Jerte Valley cherries and the ingestion of a Jerte Valley [100, 101]. The age-associated disruption in the sleep/wake cherry-based nutraceutical product improve the antioxidant rhythm has been linked to the conventional decline in status of young, middle-aged, and elderly individuals [31, 89]. It may be cor- Particularly noteworthy was that not only the substantial rected by supplementation with melatonin or with foodstufs amount of melatonin, serotonin , and tryptophan  rich in melatonin (or in melatonins precursors). In this contained in these Jerte Valley cherries, but also the timing respect, Bravo et al. The lunchtime consumption of cherries or sumed twice a day (at breakfast and supper). Hence, or decreased brain serotonin concentration, is associated together with the ingestion of cherries (or the cherry-based with several age-related pathologies . In this sense, product) at supper time, this boosts the total nighttime the consumption of the aforementioned Jerte Valley cherry circulating melatonin levels [31, 91]. Tese interventions product was efective in diminishing cortisol levels in young, succeeded in improving the subjects antioxidant status. The mechanism is Most importantly, both of these nutritional interventions via enhancement of the brain serotonin functions that are showed sleep-promoting and mood-enhancing actions in the involved in the adaptation to stress [105, 106].
J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90: treatment planning and conformal techniques 1473-1479 order precose line diabetes type 2 when to start insulin. Handbook of carefully selected patients with small may require more frequent f ollow-up purchase genuine precose diabetes test pregnancy glucose test. Patients with oligodendrogliomas that and 19q are very chemosensitive, with patient retain 1p and/or 19q may still respond to survival of 8-10 years. Tumors that maintain chemotherapy, but with lower response rates both 1p and 19q are treatment resistant, with and shorter median survival. It can mimic an acute Pituitary tumors (ade nomas) are benign symptomatic macroadenoma progression. Diagnosis When checking the prolactin serum levels, it Pituitary adenomas are among the most should be noted that occasionally in giant common adult intracranial neoplasms and invasive prolactinomas the laboratory should account for 10%-15% of adult intracranial be instructed to d ilute the samples before tumors. Prolactinomas present with are Removing mass effect and and I I amenorrhea and galactorrhea in women and impotence in men. A growth hormone-secreting associated neural compression adenoma presents with gigantism in children Correcting any endocrinopathy and acromegaly in adults. In addit ion to the Reestablishing normal hormonal functions in acral changes, they have systemic a preserved pituitary gland hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance. Clinical signs and symptoms pituitary adenomas are best treated with include central obesity with abdominal striae, medical therapy using dopamine agonists. Surgical increase avoids the possible side effects of Growth hormone-secreting adenomas:Up to 70% intervention is also indicated in a small group of headaches, nausea, and vomit ing. It is also offered to any somatostatin analog can be used as adjuvant more common with microadenomas). The female with a macroadenoma who may therapy for patients with growth hormone- recurrence of these tumors is treated with consider pregnancy in the future. Octreotide has either surgical exploration or medical therapy Surgical therapy is the first-line treatment for been given preoperatively to improve with octreotide. The sphenoid sinus is accessed via an Precautions There are numerous support gr oups that endonasal or transnasal approach, followed by provide assistance and information for Caution is indicated for use of octreotide in removal of the tumor from the sellar region. The recurrence rate is as agonist that suppresses prolactin secretion by high as 10% over a 5- to 10-year period. Ophthalmologic evaluation (including s lymphoma because the involvement is evolving hematoma. The most common signs and diffuse large ce ll and diffuse large ce ll symptoms at presentation include focal immunoblastic types are most common. Patients Isolated nodules of lymphoma ce lls can be with spinal and/or leptomeningeal disease observed at remote sites. Reactive astrocytosis complain of neck or back pain, myelopathic and necrosis may be noted. Intraocular biopsy may be reducing intracranial pressure are required before discharge. Oncology (Huntingt) 1999;13: induced blood-brain barrier disruption in some 153-160. Intrathecal chemotherapy scans and neurologic examinations every 4-8 Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1997;257-268. Patients receiving chemotherapy may depofoam), preferably via an Ommaya require more frequent follow-up. Narcotic analgesics Miscellaneous Consists of dexamethasone to control may be necessary for adequate amelioration iir symptoms of intracranial pressure, of pain. The recommended dose to the brain or involved spine is 30 Gy in 10 Balm M, Hammack J. Handbook of clinical Patients are followed with assessment of that can treat the whole neuraxis. Patients receiving chemotherapy may even throughout the neurax is when using the Current options for the treatment of neoplastic need more frequent monitoring of clinical and intraventricular route. Median overall survival is poor and methotrexate, cytarabine, and thiotepa have imaging. Neurologic complications of Survival is most limited for patients with solid patients. This is due to the very sensitive in detecting intracranial developing clinical signs of focal or sometimes transient rise in right atrial pressure above left hemorrhage. It is also inexpensive, quick, and global disturbance of cerebral function lasting atrial pressure during the Valsalva maneuver, readily available. It accounts artery-to-artery emboli Angiography is the gold standard for an for approximately 70% of emboli of cardiac Vasculitis accurate assessment of both the extracranial origin. It includes transcranial Doppler to cardiac embolism to the brain is the sudden Other valvular diseases shown to be look for intracranial disease and carotid duplex onset of neurologic signs that are maximal at associated with cardiac embolism include to assess for extracranial carotid and vertebral onset without warning episodes. Most hydration and nutrit ion; judicious control of recent previous stroke; history of intracerebral patients survive the ini tial insult. Appropriate prophylactic treatment prolonged use of indwelling catheter to internal bleeding; intracranial neoplasm, significantly decreases the recurrence rate. Medications Warfarin: Watch for compliance, bleeding events, and falling events. If follow-up shows Spectacular shrinking deficit : rapid surfaces and in patients who are not warfarin noncompliance with the medication, bleeding recovery from a major hemispheric Coumadin) candidates. Aspirin: clopidogrel events, or falling episodes, discontinuation of syndrome by migration of an embolus. Warfarin versus aspirin for Anticoagulants (warfarin) are indicated for atrial prevention of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation, especially when associated with fibrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial other cardiac lesions or other stroke risk Fibrillation I I Study. As the median nerve enters the wrist, it traverses the carpal tunnel, a narrow Diagnosis anatomic pathway bounded by carpal bones Management on its floor and sides and the transverse carpal ligament as its roof. A positive finding least 2 months includes reproduction of paresthesias in the If no response to above measures, fingertips or traveling through the hand. It consider steroid injections, particularly if should be noted that this is not diagnostic for pain is a significant feature carpal tunnel entrapment, as there is a high Training in steroid injections is false-positive rate. Philadelphia: significant surgical experience to avoid For those patients treated conservatively, Lippincott-Raven, 1999. Secondary to the which compresses a neural foramina, resulting in Tumors of the lower spinal cord, especially foreshortening of the spinal cord, which ends in a radiculopathy. Any structural ab normality (disc, Spinal stenosis through their respective neural foramina. The asymmetry results because the Little is known regarding the relationship of Acute inflammatory demyelinating lesion rarely compresses nerve roots equally; that cauda equina and pregnancy. Patients may have bowel and The symptoms of cauda equina syndrome Conus medullaris syndrome bladder dysfunction as well as numbness and may developacutely, subacutely, or chr onically, Tumors of the base of the spinal cord paresthesias of the sacral area. Most of the primarily produces a tower extremity and sacral symptoms are lower motor neuron signs, such as tower motor neuron dysfunction; but upper motor weakness and sensory toss. Some upper motor neuron signs and symptoms, such as neuron signs may rarely be seen, if the conus hyperreftexia and spasticity are sometimes seen.
For each biochemical parameter discount generic precose uk diabetes medications while pregnant, the normality in the distribution of values and the homogeneity of variance were determined using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levenes tests generic precose 25 mg mastercard diabetic diet jenny craig, respectively. Se r u m biochemical v a l u e S in c a p T i v e ib e r i a n ly n x e S (ly n x pa r d i n u S ). Re s u l t s The biochemical reference values of the 21 parameters analyzed are shown in Table 1. The correlation analysis showed that sex and age were independent from the different variables included in the study. However a signifcant correlation was found between habitat condition, the population and the method of capture. Therefore, given the biological and clinical relevance, and the importance of the management of the situation in which the animal is found, the variables population and capture method were eliminated in order to determine statistical differences. The levels of alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus and cholesterol were higher in young animals, whereas creatinine, total protein and pancreatic amylase were higher in adults. Se r u m biochemical v a l u e S f o r ib e r i a n ly n x e S (ly n x pa r d i n u S ) in q u a r a n T i n e. The concentration of phosphorus was signifcantly higher in males than in females, whereas urea was greater in females. Animals sampled in different situations showed statistically signifcant differences in several biochemical parameters. Furthermore, they showed signifcantly higher concentrations of glucose in captive and quarantined individuals compared with the free-living lynx analyzed in this study. In the present study, the sample size could be considered representative of the total population due to the large number of animals analysed. The results are also similar to those published by our team in a previous study based on 31 individuals sampled between 2004 and 2006 (Garca et al. These results agree with those reported in other species of wild cat and are possibly a result of increased levels of stress suffered by these species during capture (Kocan et al, 1985; Hawkeye and Hart, 1986; Weaver and Johnson, 1995; Miller et al. The high levels of glucose obtained in Iberian lynx in comparison with the domestic cat have also been described in other wild feline species (currier and Russell, 1982; Fuller et al. The process of immobilisation and manipulation during capture has a greater adverse effect on wild species than on domestic cats. Stress and the use of anaesthetics during capture decrease the reduction of hepatic glycogen, and therefore, increase the concentration of glucose in blood (Miller et al. Urea levels in the Iberian lynx are also above the established ranges in the domestic cat (Kaneko et al. The high concentrations found in canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) adults by Weaver and Johnson (1995) were attributed to chronic renal dysfunction and, similarly, autoimmune membranous glomerulonephritis has recently been described in Iberian lynx (Jimnez et al. Although this study revealed higher levels of urea in adults compared with juveniles and subadults, these differences were not statistically significant. These fndings coincide with those previously observed in the Iberian lynx (Beltrn et al. The concentration of serum creatinine is directly related to muscle mass, so it is normal for levels obtained in adults to be higher. Likewise, increased physical activity and nutritional factors are also associated with high levels of creatinine, total protein and pancreatic amylase found in adults (Weaver and Johnson, 1995; Dunbar et al. Recently, Jimenez et al,(2008) found elevated levels of creatinine in Iberian lynx affected by membranous glomerulonephritis, which is more prevalent in adult animals. These results do not match those previously reported for this species (Beltrn et al. The higher levels of albumin previously reported in female Iberian lynx (Garca et al. The increase in levels of creatinine and glucose in captive lynx could be related to diet. The data is representative of the total population as it has been obtained from more than half of the existing lynx population, including animals of different ages, sexes, habitat conditions and metapopulations. This work has been possible thanks to the Environment Ministry of the Andalusian Government, which has commissioned the study and provided samples. Diseases of the Iberian serum biochemical reference intervals for Florida panthers. Interdisciplinary Methods in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) conservation Breeding Programme, in: Vargas, Meyer, D. Serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (Felis concolor) in california. Histopathological and immunohistochemical fndings in lymphoid tissues of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Patterns and causes of non- natural mortality in the Iberian lynx during a 40 year period of range contraction. Los estudios iniciales revelaron la presencia de deplecin linfoide, glomerulonefritis y hialinosis folicular esplnica entre otros hallazgos menos frecuentes como tuberculosis y carcinomas de clulas escamosas. Muestras de tejidos fjados en formol de 40 linces ibricos fueron procesadas, teidas con hematoxilina y eosina y evaluadas. Adems, se emplearon tinciones especiales, inmunohistoqumica y microscopa electrnica en los tejidos renales y linfoides de casos seleccionados. El estado inmune fue evaluado mediante tcnicas de linfoproliferacin y fenotipado de clulas mononucleares sanguneas, utilizando muestras de sangre de 23 linces ibricos. Para evaluar la funcin renal fueron recogidas muestras de sangre (n=23) y orina (n=17) de forma prospectiva. En la mayora de los animales de este estudio se observ una deplecin variable de clulas T y B en los tejidos linfoides perifricos. Por su parte, los ensayos de linfoproliferacin y citometra de fujo mostraron una respuesta reducida y reduccin en el nmero de las poblaciones linfocitarias, respectivamente, en la mayora de los animales. Tambin se observaron depsitos de hialina en muchos de los folculos esplnicos evaluados. En todos los animales se hall glomerulonefritis membranosa en diferentes grados de severidad. En 16 de los 23 animales vivos analizados se hallaron indicios de enfermedad renal crnica. La disfuncin renal y las alteraciones inmunitarias pueden tener repercusiones en la conservacin de las poblaciones de lince ibrico supervivientes y deberan tenerse en consideracin. Initial studies revealed lymphoid depletion, glomerulonephritis and splenic follicular hyalinosis among other less frequent fndings such as tuberculosis and squamous cell carcinomas. Formalin fxed tissue samples of all organ systems from 40 Iberian lynxes were routinely processed, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and evaluated. Additionally, special stains, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy were applied on renal and lymphoid tissues of selected cases. The immunity status was evaluated by means of lymphoproliferative stimulation and phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cell types using whole blood samples from 23 Iberian lynxes. Blood (n=23) and urine (n=17) samples were prospectively collected for evaluation of renal function. Various degrees of both B and T cells depletion in peripheral lymphoid tissues were noted in the majority of animals.