Duration – Depending on indication and clinical response Contra-indications buy 20mcg atrovent medications pictures, adverse effects order genuine atrovent online treatment authorization request, precautions – Do not administer to patients allergic to cephalosporins or penicillins (risk of cross-sensitivity). Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with allergy to cephalosporins or penicillins (cross-sensitivity may occur) and to neonates with jaundice (risk of bilirubin encephalopathy). Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to children under 1 year. In these events, stop treatment immediately; • gastrointestinal disturbances, peripheral and optic neuropathies. If used during the 3rd trimester, risk of grey syndrome in the newborn infant (vomiting, hypothermia, blue-grey skin colour and cardiovascular depression). In these events, stop treatment immediately; • gastrointestinal disturbances, peripheral and optic neuropathies. Duration – Change to oral treatment as soon as possible Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with closed-angle glaucoma, prostate disorders; to elderly patients with dementia (e. Dosage – Severe staphylococcal and/or streptococcal infections Neonate 0 to 7 days (< 2 kg): 10 mg/kg/day in 2 divided infusions Neonate 0 to 7 days (≥ 2 kg): 15 mg/kg/day in 3 divided infusions Neonate 8 days to < 1 month (< 2 kg): 15 mg/kg/day in 3 divided infusions Neonate 8 days to < 1 month (≥ 2 kg): 30 mg/kg/day in 3 divided infusions Child 1 month and over: 30 mg/kg/day in 3 divided infusions (max. Duration – Cellulitis, erysipelas: 7 to 10 days; pneumonia: 10 to 14 days; severe cutaneous anthrax: 14 days; necrotizing infections: according to clinical evolution. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with allergy to lincosamides or history of pseudo-membranous colitis. Do not use oral cloxacillin for completion treatment following parenteral therapy. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to penicillin-allergic patients. DexAmeThAsone Prescription under medical supervision Therapeutic action – Corticosteroid Indications – Inflammatory syndrome in severe infections: severe typhoid fever, acute subglottic laryngitis, etc. Dosage and duration – The dosage range is variable, depending on the severity of symptoms and clinical response. Every 6 hours, discharge the content remaining in the electric syringe and prepare a new syringe for 6 hours. Remarks – Diazepam is subject to international controls: follow national regulations. Maximum dose: 150 mg/day Duration – Maximum 2 to 3 days; change to oral treatment as soon as possible. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with bradycardia, ill defined arrhythmia, coronary artery disease. Remarks – When administering nifurtimox-eflornithine combined therapy, the dosage of nifurtimox in children and adults is 15 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses at 8-hour intervals. If the implant is inserted later (in the absence of pregnancy), it is recommended to use condoms during the first 7 days after the insertion. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with breast cancer, severe or recent liver disease, unexplained vaginal bleeding, current thromboembolic disorders. Remarks – Implants provide long term contraception, their efficacy is not conditioned by observance. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Administer with caution to patients with hepatic or renal impairment, cardiac disorders (bradycardia, heart rhythm disorders, etc. Stop treatment in the event of anaphylactic reaction, hepatic disorders or severe skin reaction. Remarks – For cryptococcocal meningitis, when amphotericin B is not available or not tolerated, fluconazole may be administered alone during the induction phase (same doses as the oral route). Duration – According to clinical response; – If prolonged use is required, change to oral treatment 3 hours after the last injection. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in other types of oedema, especially those due to kwashiorkor. Given the risk of renal and auditory toxicity, do not prolong treatment unnecessarily. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with allergy to aminoglycosides o auditory and vestibular damage. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – May cause: • vein irritation; • severe tissue damage (necrosis) in the event of extravasation. Remarks – 50% glucose solution is too viscous, concentrated and irritant to be used in children. If ready-made 10% glucose solution is not available: add 10 ml of 50% glucose per 100 ml of 5% glucose to obtain a 10% glucose solution. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with cardiac disorders (cardiac failure, recent myocardial infarction, conduction disorders, bradycardia, etc. Remarks – Haloperidol decanoate is a long-acting form used in the long-term management of psychotic disorders in patients stabilised on oral treatment (100 mg every 3 to 4 weeks). Start with an initial dose of 250 Iu/kg and adjust dosage according to coagulation tests. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer if: • haemorrhage or risk of haemorrhage: haemophilia, active peptic ulcer, acute bacterial endocarditis, severe hypertension; in postoperative period after neurosurgery or ophtalmic surgery; • thrombocytopenia or history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Reduce doses of protamine if more than 15 minutes has elapsed since heparin administration. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Administer with caution to patients with heart failure, coronary insufficiency, recent myocardial infarction, severe tachycardia, history of stroke. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Avoid prolonged administration in patients with peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus or cirrhosis. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary retention, closed-angle glaucoma, tachycardia. For each preparation, onset and duration vary greatly according to the patient and route of administration. Indications – Insulin-dependent diabetes – Diabetes during pregnancy – Degenerative complications of diabetes : retinopathy, neuropathy, etc. Duration – Insulin-dependent diabetics: life-time treatment – Other cases: according to clinical response and laboratory tests Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in patients with allergy to insulin (rare). Rotate injection sites systematically and use all available sites (upper arm, thighs, abdomen, upper back). Diabetes is controlled when: • there are no glucose and ketones in urine; • before-meal blood glucose levels are < 1. Treatment includes: insulin administration, specific diet, education and counselling under medical supervision (self-monitoring of blood glucose, self-administration of insulin, knowledge about signs of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia). Also comes in solution containing 100 Iu/ml, administered only with calibrated syringe for Iu-100 insulin. Dosage – 20 to 40 Iu/day divided in 2 injections for intermediate-acting insulin, in 1 or 2 injections for long-acting insulin. Short-acting insulin is often administered in combination with an intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin. Examples of regimens: Insulin Administration • Short-acting insulin • 2 times/day before breakfast and lunch • Intermediate-acting insulin •at bedtime • Short-acting insulin • 3 times/day before breakfast, lunch and dinner • Long-acting insulin • at bedtime or before breakfast • Intermediate-acting with or without short- • 2 times/day before breakfast and dinner acting insulin Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – See "insulin: general information". Remove from the refrigerator 1 hour before administration or roll the vial between hands.
The neonatal behavioral changes are buy cheap atrovent 20mcg medications ok during pregnancy, however order atrovent with a visa medicine 6 year in us, transient as shown in a 5- to 10-year follow-up of 70 children born to mothers who received meperidine during labor. There were no significant persisting physical or psychological effects as a result of this medication (Buck, 1975). The frequency of central nervous system anomalies was increased in the offspring of hamsters who received meperidine in doses several times that used in humans (Geber and Schramm, 1975). Meperidine is apparently a safe drug for use during pregnancy when taken within the therapeutic dose range, especially during labor. The dose needs extra consideration because of the long half-life of this drug in the neonate. Nonetheless, pregnant women may be exposed to this narcotic analgesic for other indications (e. The frequency of birth defects was no greater than expected among the offspring of 70 women who received this drug during the first trimester of pregnancy (Heinonen et al. Two animal studies found that morphine exposure during embryogenesis did not increase the frequency of congenital anomalies (Fujinaga and Mazze, 1988; Yamamoto et al. Three other experimental animal studies did find an increase in the central nervous system and other abnormalities in the offspring of animals treated with morphine in doses several times larger than those used in humans (Geber, 1977; Geber and Schramm, 1975; Harpel and Gautierie, 1968). Newborns of addicted mothers may experience withdrawal symptoms, and this is dis- cussed in more detail in the chapter on substance abuse (Chapter 16). It crosses the placenta readily, but evidently not to the same extent as meperidine (Spielman, 1987). Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents 157 The frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased in two studies encompass- ing 63 infants born to mothers who utilized pentazocine in association with tripelen- namine, i. In another study, the frequency of congenital anomalies was increased but concomitant heavy alcohol use in the study cohort was probably the proximate cause of the birth defects observed (Little et al. The authors concluded that it was very unlikely that the anomalies found were associated with the abuse of pentazocine. An increased frequency of low birth weight infants was associated with the use of pen- tazocine and tripelennamine during pregnancy (Chasnoff et al. No epidemiologic studies are published regarding the possible association of congenital anomalies with the therapeutic use of pentazocine. There was an increased frequency of central nervous system defects in the offspring of hamsters which had received large doses of pentazocine, but not with smaller doses (Geber and Schramm, 1975). As with all narcotics, fetal addiction and severe neonatal withdrawal symptoms occur with habitual maternal use of pentazocine (Goetz and Bain, 1974; Kopelman, 1975; Little et al. The main advantage of butorphanel is that it has the efficacy of other narcotic analgesics, but respiratory depressive effects are less of a risk than with other narcotics. The butorphanol metabolite has no analgesic or toxic effect, unlike meperidine, which is an advantage in the management of maternal dose and untoward neonatal effects (Spielman, 1987), because this agent readily crosses the placenta (Pittman et al. Importantly, it may cause fetal and neonatal cardiorespiratory depression at high and frequent dose regimens. Chronic use/abuse of this agent during pregnancy may lead to fetal dependence and severe neonatal withdrawal symptoms. No studies regarding the use of this agent during pregnancy and the frequency of con- genital anomalies have been published. However, butorphanel is not considered to increase the risk of birth defects substantially (Friedman and Polifka, 2006). The frequency of con- genital anomalies among offspring exposed to butorphanol during embryogenesis was not increased above that observed in offspring of sham controls (Takahashi et al. Butorphanol is compatible with breastfeeding (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994). No pattern of anomalies was observed in a clinical case series of 40 infants whose mothers used hydrocodone during the first trimester (Schick et al. An increased frequency of malformations was found in the offspring of animals that received extremely large doses of this agent (Geber and Schramm, 1975). Several early studies regarding the use of this analgesic during labor associate it with newborn respiratory depression (Sentnor et al. An increased frequency of malformations was observed in offspring of animals given oxymorphone during embryogenesis, but a dose 5000 times that normally used in humans was used (Geber and Schramm, 1975). In an unpublished study, the frequency of birth defects among 281 infants born to women who were prescribed oxycodone during the first trimester was not increased (Rosa, 1993). Pharmacologically, this analgesic is expected to result in neonatal respiratory depres- sion and possibly withdrawal symptoms. Alphaprodine crosses the placenta readily and may result in newborn respiratory depression. This agent is no longer commonly used during pregnancy because of the potential for causing a sinu- soidal heart rate pattern in the fetus (Gray et al. It may, however, cause respiratory depression with chronic maternal use in the third trimester (Regan et al. No birth defects were found among rats given high doses of this drug throughout gestation (Fujinaga et al. In epidemiological investiga- tions, the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased among the offspring of almost 800 women who used this agent during early pregnancy (Heinonen et al. A few case reports of malformations in the offspring of mothers who utilized propoxyphene during pregnancy have been published (Golden et al. Propoxyphene is not ter- atogenic in rabbit, hamster, rat, or mouse animal models at doses 40-fold greater than the usual human dose (Buttar and Moffatt, 1983; Emmerson et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents 159 A neonatal withdrawal syndrome (irritability, hyperactivity, tremors, high-pitched cry) was reported among newborns of mothers who used propoxyphene chronically during late pregnancy (Ente and Mehra, 1978; Klein et al. Propoxyphene is opined to be safe for breastfeeding mothers (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994). Nalbuphine, as other narcotics, has the potential to result in neona- tal respiratory depression, fetal and neonatal addiction, fetal cardiac function alter- ations, and withdrawal symptoms in the newborn. For example, this agent was associ- ated with a sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern, similar to that produced by alphaprodine (Feinstein et al. No studies have been published regarding use of this agent during pregnancy during the first trimester. However, according to the manufacturer, this agent was not terato- genic in animal studies. Narcotic antagonists These are agents used primarily for the treatment of central nervous system and car- diorespiratory depression secondary to narcotic agonists. No studies have been published regarding congenital anomalies among the offspring of women who took this drug in the first trimester. In experimental animal studies (hamsters, mice), the frequency of congenital anom- alies was not increased among offspring exposed to naloxone at many times the usual human dose (Geber and Schramm, 1975; Jurand, 1985). It is well known that naloxone may precipitate withdrawal symptoms in newborns whose mothers are addicted to nar- cotics, and who used very high doses of narcotics near the time of delivery. No studies have been published on congenital anomalies after exposure to naltrexone during embryogenesis. Three case series comprising reportedly nonoverlapping patients contained 31 infants whose mothers used naltrexone during the first trimester, and there were no congenital anomalies present (Hulse and O’Neil, 2002; Hulse et al.
A cancer statistics authority reported that by 1997 over 33% of American high schoolers were using cigarettes order 20 mcg atrovent with visa treatment 4 hiv. For information about speciﬁc pyridine alkaloids class stimulants buy atrovent in united states online treatment hepatitis b, see al- phabetical listings for: areca nut and nicotine. Many depres- sants are used as sedatives or tranquilizers, terms often used as if they mean the same thing even though some experts would dispute such interchangeable usage of the terms sedative and tranquilizer. Depressant drugs slow a person down, and one result can be reduction of tension, which in turn can improve a mentally depressed mood. Depressant withdrawal symptoms typically in- clude uneasiness and sleeping difﬁculty. If dependence is strong enough, withdrawal may also involve tremors, loss of strength, delirium, and seizures. Gradual reduction in dosage may help avoid withdrawal symptoms, but much depends on the particular drug and the strength of dependence. Barbiturate Class Barbiturates were introduced into medical practice during the early 1900s, for combating insomnia, anxiety, and seizures. Despite occasional ﬂurries of concern, not until the 1960s did much alarm grow about barbiturates in the United States. Senate subcommittee began portraying the drug class as a menace in the 1970s, and afterward stricter controls were put on use. If someone intoxicated by al- cohol takes barbiturates, the drunkenness will deepen as if more alcohol had been swallowed. Pharmaceutical effects of alcohol alone can kill a person who overdoses, and adding barbiturates can transform a session of social drinking into a fatal one. More than one person has died by taking barbiturate sleeping pills with alcohol instead of water. The similarity of alcohol and barbiturates is also shown by the appearance of a serious withdrawal syndrome called delirium tremens in alcohol and barbiturate abusers who are cut off from their drug. Barbiturate with- drawal may involve dizziness, tremors, ﬁdgety behavior, edgy feelings, and insomnia. A person using barbiturates should take the same precautions as a person using alcohol, for example, using care about running dangerous machinery such as automobiles. Barbiturates can cause reﬂex sympathetic dystrophy of the arm, a disease in which a hand loses bone density and becomes painful and difﬁcult to move. This class of drugs may also cause a syndrome that produces pain in the shoulder and hand, interfering with their movement. Extended dosage with barbiturates may cause rickets, a disease in which bones soften. One of the most dangerous effects of barbiturate overdose is temporary stoppage of elec- trical activity in the brain, which could lead to premature declaration of a patient’s death, particularly if the patient is being treated for some injury without caregivers knowing about the person’s barbiturate usage. This class of substances may interfere with blood thinner medicine, with birth control pills, and with other female hormone medications. When used by pregnant women, barbiturates can cause birth defects rang- ing from internal organ deformities to malformations of the face. If a pregnant woman uses barbiturates regularly, her offspring may be born resonant with Drug Types 21 them. This class of drugs passes into the milk of nursing mothers and may depress consciousness, pulse rate, and respiration of nursing infants. For information about speciﬁc barbiturate class depressants, see alphabetical listings for: butalbital, mephobarbital, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital. Benzodiazepine Class Benzodiazepines became widely available for medical purposes in the 1960s and replaced barbiturates in treatments of many conditions. Benzodiazepines proved themselves less prone to abuse than barbiturates, in addition to being safer—accidental overdose is unlikely because the amount needed for a med- ical effect is so much smaller than a poisonous amount. In addition to reducing anxiety, benzodiazepines may improve quality of sleep—from ﬁghting insom- nia to eliminating sleepwalking. As might be expected with drugs that promote sleep, benzodiazepines can worsen reaction time, vigilance, and thinking abilities and therefore should be used cautiously if a person is operating dangerous machinery such as an au- tomobile. Problems may also develop for persons who are already unsteady on their feet, such as elderly persons prone to falling. The substances can also cause memory trouble, typically difﬁculty in recalling recent experiences. These are “paradoxical reactions,” meaning they are the opposite of what would be expected from the drug. Expressions of rage possibly emerge because the drug reduces anxiety in a person who is angry about something, and less anxiety can lead to less inhibition against doing something. Over a 12-year span a practitioner observed patients taking benzodiazepines to treat serious sleep problems such as night terrors and sleepwalking. The practitioner found that 2% of this population (not 2% of all patients but just those using benzodiazepines against these sleep disorders) occasionally abused them,27 and this population base included persons with a previous history of drug abuse; thus we can expect benzodiazepine abuse to be even lower in a general population. Among persons treated for drug abuse, ben- zodiazepines are among the least-abused substances. Experiments giving free access to benzodiazepines to persons undergoing treatment for drug abuse revealed little interest in those compounds. Although benzodiazepines are administered to treat alcohol withdrawal, com- bining the two substances recreationally is a dangerous mix that can prove fatal. Mea- sured by amount of misuse, claims made by misusers about drug effects, men- tal and physical effects veriﬁed in scientiﬁc experiments, and impressions reported by medical caregivers, diazepam is considered to have one of the 22 The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs greatest potentials for abuse. Tolerance to some benzodiazepine effects can develop (many details are in this book’s alphabetical section). Dependence can also emerge, with a with- drawal syndrome similar to those of alcohol and barbiturates. Small studies have found that women who use benzodiazepines during pregnancy produce infants who are smaller than normal. Sim- ilar ﬁndings in another small study33 included mental retardation, but still another study34 noted that such children also had heavy fetal exposure to alcohol, exposure that is known to produce mental retardation. Research track- ing children up to four years of age found that early problems attributed to benzodiazepines cleared up in most of them. Some investigators believe they have detected a particular birth defect pattern, but such ﬁndings have been questioned. It passes into breast milk, but the amount from lower-dosage levels probably has no effect on nursing infants. For information about speciﬁc benzodiazepine class depressants, see alpha- betical listings for: alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, clorazepate, diazepam, estazolam, ﬂunitrazepam, ﬂurazepam, halazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, prazepam, quazepam, temazepam, and triazolam. At one time the term narcotic referred speciﬁcally and only to opiates, but when drug con- trol laws were strengthened in the early twentieth century the language of Drug Types 23 those laws expanded the dictionary deﬁnition of narcotic and made it a syn- onym for all controlled drugs. Although opiates have various medical uses, the main therapeutic appli- cation is pain control. Some other therapeutic uses of speciﬁc opiates are given in this book’s alphabetical listings of drugs.
Personal statement is assessed against the following non-academic criteria: student is self-motvated and has initatve generic atrovent 20mcg on line symptoms 0f parkinson disease, is literate and artculate and has the ability to demonstrate a commitment to becoming a doctor buy generic atrovent 20 mcg on-line symptoms kidney infection. Personal statement Statements are assessed on whether candidates have fully, partally or not met each criteria. Scores are then compiled with the highest scoring candidates being invited to atend a selecton day. However, applicants are expected to demonstrate what they have learned Work experience from their life experiences (this may include work experience, paid employment and personal experiences both in and outside health and social care setngs). All candidates must Widening partcipaton meet the eligibility criteria for the programme as well as the academic criteria. Internatonal Baccalaureate N/A Applicants must demonstrate a clear interest and commitment to pursuing Personal statement a career in medicine. Gilbert Willy Haeberli 2003–2007 Physics in Biology and Medicine, Third Edition Paul Davidovits Crystallography Made Crystal Clear, Third Edition Gale Rhodes Fusion Garry M. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. You may also complete your request online via the Elsevier homepage (http://elsevier. Even a virus, which is one of the simplest biological organisms, consists of millions of interacting atoms. A cell, which is the basic building block of tissue, contains on the aver- age 1014 atoms. These phenomena are so diﬀer- ent from the predictable properties of inanimate matter that many scientists in the early 19th century believed that diﬀerent laws governed the structure and organization molecules in living matter. These molecules tend to be larger and more com- plex than molecules obtained from inorganic sources. It was thought that the large molecules found in living matter could be produced only by living organ- isms through a “vital force” that could not be explained by the existing laws of physics. This concept was disproved in 1828 when Friedrich Wohler¨ synthe- sized an organic substance, urea, from inorganic chemicals. Soon thereafter many other organic molecules were synthesized without the intervention of biological organisms. Today most scientists believe that there is no special vital force residing in organic substances. The atomic structure of many complex biological molecules has now been determined, and the role of these molecules within living systems has been described. It is now possible to explain the functioning of cells and many of their interactions with each other. Even when the structure of a complex molecule is known, it is not possible at present to predict its function from its atomic structure. The mechanisms of cell nourishment, growth, reproduction, and communication are still understood only qualitatively. However, biological research has so far not revealed any areas where physical laws do not apply. The amazing properties of life seem to be achieved by the enormously complex organization in living systems. The aim of this book is to relate some of the concepts in physics to living systems. The discussion is organized into the following areas: solid mechanics, ﬂuid mechanics, thermodynamics, sound, electricity, optics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter contains a brief review of the background physics, but most of the text is devoted to the applications of physics to biology and medicine. The biological systems to be discussed are described in as much detail as is necessary for the physical analysis. Whenever possible, the analysis is quantitative, requiring only basic algebra and trigonometry. We calculate the height to which a person can jump, and we discuss the eﬀect of an animal’s size on the speed at which it can run. In our study of ﬂuids we examine quantitatively the circulation of blood in the body. The theory of ﬂuids allows us also to calculate the role of diﬀusion in the functioning of cells and the eﬀect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil. Using the principles of electricity, we analyze quantitatively the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. There are, of course, severe limits on the quantitative application of physics to biological systems. Many of the advances in the life sciences have been greatly aided by the application of the techniques of physics and engineering to the study of living systems. Both in common use and in the sci- entiﬁc literature one often ﬁnds pressure also expressed in units of dynes/cm2, Torr (mm Hg), psi, and atm. In those cases conversion factors have been provided either within the text or in a compilation at the end of Appendix A. Hobbie and David Cinabro for their careful reading of the manuscript and helpful suggestions. In this third edition I want to express my appreciation for the encouragement and compe- tent direction of Tom Singer and Jason Malley editors at Elsevier/Academic Press and for the help of Sarah Hajduk and Ramesh Gurusubramanian in the production of this edition. It was the ﬁrst branch of physics that was applied success- fully to living systems, primarily to understanding the principles governing the movement of animals. Our present concepts of mechanics were formulated by Isaac Newton, whose major work on mechanics, Principia Mathematica, was published in 1687. The early Greeks, who were interested in both science and athletics, were also the ﬁrst to apply physical principles to animal movements. Aristotle wrote, “The animal that moves makes its change of position by pressing against that which is beneath it. Runners run faster if they swing their arms for in extension of the arms there is a kind of leaning upon the hands and the wrist. After the decline of ancient Greece, the pursuit of all scientiﬁc work entered a period of lull that lasted until the Renaissance brought about a resurgence in many activities including science. During this period of revival, Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) made detailed observations of ani- mal motions and muscle functions. Since da Vinci, hundreds of people have contributed to our understanding of animal motion in terms of mechanical principles. Their studies have been aided by improved analytic techniques and the development of instruments such as the photographic camera and electronic timers. Today the study of human motion is part of the disciplines 1 2 Chapter 1 Static Forces of kinesiology, which studies human motion primarily as applied to athletic activities, and biomechanics, a broader area that is concerned not only with muscle movement but also with the physical behavior of bones and organs such as the lungs and the heart. The development of prosthetic devices such as artiﬁcial limbs and mechanical hearts is an active area of biomechanical research.
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