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Preventing chronic pain It is always possible to do something for cancer It may be possible to prevent chronic benign pain pain, and it may be reassuring for patients to know by more aggressive treatment of acute pain. Identi- that there are alternative treatments should their ﬁcation of risk factors, early education and discus- symptoms progress. The chronic pain syndrome The precise cause and mechanism of many pain Useful websites syndromes remains unknown. The medical examination of these patients [This is the best website for information about requires experience and understanding of the con- regional anaesthesia techniques. It is a very practical tropics companion for the increasing number of medical students and junior doctors who have the opportunity to practice medicine in the tropics. The Integrates the basic science book integrates basic science with clinical practice, with disease-orientated with clinical practice descriptions and clinical presentations on a system-by-system basis. Core introductory text for the For this new sixth edition the text has been brought fully up to date throughout. The student and the practitioner highly structured and improved text is designed to facilitate easy access to information, making the book an ideal resource for clinical attachments and revision. Major update throughout and There is a new chapter that covers infections in special groups, as well as coverage new chapter on infections in of sepsis and septic shock. It follows the now familiar, easy-to-use, double page spread format of the * Concise introduction and at a Glance series. Each double page presents clear, memorable diagrams that revision text illustrate essential information with accompanying text that covers key topics and issues in more detail. The first section focuses on basic biological concepts such as cell and * Three section structure chromosome structure, molecular biology and the cell cycle, as well as human covering developmental embyronic development and sexual maturation. It can be used as primary or supplementary reading in a lecture- based course and is perfect for exam preparation. White Second edition 2007 2 Introduction The purpose of the pediatric anesthesia rotation is to provide an initial exposure to a variety of pediatric cases. The length of this rotation, 4 weeks, is enough to allow participation in the care of about 100 patients. One of the goals of this rotation is to prepare residents for routine “bread and butter” cases, to be safe with pediatric patients, and to be able to identify situations in which he or she might need help. Pressure controlled ventilation may be the best choice- since it will deliver whatever volume will generate the set pressure (such as 20 mm Hg). An oral airway that is too small can indent the tongue and push it back into the hypopharynx, effectively preventing air exchange. When measuring the oral airway on the outside of the jaw, make sure that the tip will not extend past the angle of the mandible. A pulse oximeter should be the first monitor placed on the child, followed by a precordial stethoscope. When left to right shunting may occur (as in all infants), two oximeters (one on the right arm or right ear) and another on one of the other three extremities will reflect the amount of shunting occurring. The precordial stethoscope will tell you that air is moving in the trachea, the patient is not having laryngospasm (hopefully! On the anesthesia cart you should have succinylcholine, atropine, and a syringe with a mixture of succinylcholine and atropine. Use of this syringe will be necessary extremely rarely- in the instance where a child develops laryngospasm during inhalation induction before intravenous access has been achieved. Never use dextrose containing solutions for fluid boluses or to replace third space or intravascular volume losses. If there is any concern about procuring the airway, dextrose administration should be deferred until this has been accomplished as dextrose infusions have been associated with worsening the outcomes of hypoxic episodes. Age definitions: the term newly born is used to describe the infant in the first minutes to hours after birth; the term neonate describes infants in the first 28 days/first month/ of life; the term infant includes the neonatal period and up to 12 months. Respiratory distress syndrome – absence or deficiency of surfactant; characterized by hypercarbia and hypoxia with resultant acidosis; may be complicated by pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia – chronic obstructive lung disease of neonates exposed to barotraumas and high inspired oxygen concentration; characterized by persistent respiratory difficulty and radiographic evidence of diffuse linear densities and radiolucent areas. Persistent pulmonary hypertension – pulmonary hypertension and vascular hyperreactivity with resultant right to left shunting and cyanosis; associated with cardiac anomalies, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, diaphragmatic hernia, and group B streptococcal sepsis. Gastroesophageal reflux – involuntary movement of stomach contents into the esophagus; physiologic reflux is found in all newborns; pathologic reflux can result in failure to thrive, recurrent respiratory problems/aspiration, bronchospasm, and apnea, irritability, esophagitis, ulceration and gastrointestinal bleeding. Jaundice – hyperbilirubinemia from increased bilirubin load and poor hepatic conjugation/unconjugated, physiologic/ or abnormalities of bilirubin production, metabolism, or excretion/non-physiologic/. Hypoglycemia – blood sugar less than 40 mg/100ml, characterized by lethargy, hypotonia, tremors, apnea, and seizures. Premedication The primary goals of premedication in children are to facilitate a smooth separation from the parents and to ease the induction of anesthesia. Other effects that may be achieved by premedication include: Amnesia Anxiolysis Prevention of physiologic stress Reduction of total anesthetic requirements Decreased probability of aspiration Vagolysis Decreased salivation and secretions Antiemesis Analgesia Children greater than 10 months usually receive midazolam 0. The circuits used for pediatrics were traditionally designed specifically to decrease the resistance to breathing by eliminating valves; decrease the amount of dead space in the circuit; and in the case of the Bain circuit, decrease the amount of heat loss by having a coaxial circuit with warm exhaled gas surrounding and warming the fresh gas flow. Airways: To determine whether an oral airway is the proper size, hold the airway beside the patient’s face with the top of the airway beside the mouth. It is less bulky, allowing laryngoscopy to be performed while cricoid pressure is applied with the fifth finger of the same hand. In general straight blades/Miller/ are used in infants to facilitate picking up the elongated epiglottis and exposing the vocal cords. Endotracheal tubes: small-diameter endotracheal tubes increase airway resistance and work of breathing. The anesthesiologist should calculate ideal tube size and have available one size larger and one size smaller. Ultimately the proper tube size is confirmed by the ability to generate positive pressure greater than 30 cm H2O and by the presence of a leak at less than 20 cm H2O. It is caused most often by inadequate depth of anesthesia with sensory stimulation /secretions, manipulation of airway, surgical stimulation/. Treatment includes removal of stimulus, 100% oxygen, continuous positive pressure by mask, and muscle relaxants. Usually laryngospasm will break under positive pressure but on the rare occasion that this fails, only a very small dose of succinylcholine is required for relaxation of the vocal cords, which are quite sensitive to muscle relaxation. While 1-2 mg/kg maybe required for complete relaxation, only one tenth of this will generally relax the vocal cords. Blood pressure monitoring: Cuff size can be determined using the following criteria: cuff bladder width should be approximately 40% of the arm circumference; bladder length should be 90 to 100% of the arm circumference.
This process is usually done by the hospital staff purchase avana 200mg erectile dysfunction what is it, but can also be done by relatives who are aware of the procedure order cheapest avana erectile dysfunction causes wiki. If the patient has breathing difficulty and excessive cough formation (expectoration) or if the patient is unconscious then Portex endotracheal tube is inserted through the mouth or nose in to the trachea (wind-pipe). If there is no improvement in the level of consciousness or excessive cough continues to accumulate in the lungs; doctors usually decide to perform tracheostomy. In this procedure a small hole is made in front of the neck on the windpipe and a plastic or metal tube is inserted into it, so as to facilitate the breathing process. The secretions accumulated in the respiratory tract can be easily removed through suction and the risk of pneumonia is minimised. When breathing starts improving, level of consciousness improves and secretions decrease, then gradually the diameter of the tube can be decreased, thus decreasing the size of the hole. In order to avoid secretions from accumulating and thereby preventing hypostatic pneumonia and maintain normal breathing, chest physiotherapy should be initiated early. Predictions about the patient’s disease, whether the medicines given to the patient are proper, whether the doctors are good- etc topics should be avoided. Due to this the patient and the relatives can become confused, which can create, a problem in patient’s treatment and health. Things like offering fruits, flowers, books, get well soon cards for the patient can be done to convey well wishes. Prayers for the patient can be done at a holy place or home; the patient can also be convinced to pray. In a situation where the patient is not insured and financially not in a good condition and requires financial support for the treatment, the doctor’s attention should definitely be drawn towards this. With the doctor’s guidance medicines can be obtained at subsidized- rates from various social organizations. Liberty Cinema Toll Free: 540-433-7686, Fax: 540-432-0206 Marine Lines, Mumbai-400020 Email : maainfo@shentel. It is for this reason that we emphasize the basic components of cells and their matrices during the early portion of the course. With an understanding of the nature of the relationship between cells and their matrices, we can proceed to the study of the organization of these two components into the basic tissues of the body. In turn, the four basic tissues are organized into the various organs of the body, and these generally exist as interrelated functional units termed organ systems. The four basic tissues of the body are: 1) Epithelium 2) Connective tissue 3) Muscle 4) Nervous tissue Again, we emphasize: All of the organs of the body are composed of varying proportions of the four basic tissues, and each of the four basic tissues consists of cells and extracellular matrices. Note: The images were scanned from the Histology Slide Collection, which is listed at the end of this manual. In the online version, there are low power thumbnail images of the microscopic slides that have been scanned. Ross and Wojciech Pawlina, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016 th Junquiera’s Basic Histology, Text and Atlas, 13 ed. Whichever of these you choose, it is advisable to read the appropriate material in preparation for lab and bring the histology text to lab. This book includes some images that are not in the online lab manual and supplements the basic material. Understand and be able to describe how the most common dye combination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), stains various components of cells and tissues. Note: There is a more complete description of methods for preparation of histological samples at the end of this laboratory manual (p. The specimen on the microscope slide is a thin section (usually 5 micrometers) of the fixed tissue or organ. Components of the specimen generally stain selectively and, on this basis, various regions of the specimen may be differentiated from each other. These form salts with tissue anions, especially the phosphate groups of the nucleic acids and the sulfate groups of the glycosaminoglycans. When the dye moiety is an anion, the dye is called anionic or acid dye and salt formation occurs with tissue cations including the lysine and arginine groups of tissue proteins. Tissue components that recognize basic dyes are "basophilic" and those that recognize acid dyes are "acidophilic". A common combination of stains is hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), which are commonly referred to as basic and acid dyes, respectively. At lower magnifications they appear as blue dots and at higher magnifications chromatin and nucleoli may be identified within the nucleus. Surrounding the nucleus is the acidophilic cytoplasm stained pink (due to the positive charges on arginine and lysine). The luminal surface (center of the 40x view of colonic mucosa slide) is smooth and consists of pale cells (called Goblet cells), absorptive cells, and enteroendocrine cells that make up the mucosa. The free surface of the cell, facing a lumen, is referred to as the cell apex and the opposite surface is the cell base. Note the intense reaction at the apical surface of the epithelial cells and within scattered goblet cells (containing mucin) at the luminal surface. Note the basophilia in the basal compartment and the acidophilia in the apical (luminal) compartment of the cytoplasm. These cells contain basal surface secretory granules, which release digestive enzymes into nucleus the lumen of the acinus. The lumens of the acini converge into interlobular ducts, secretory granules eventually merging to become the pancreatic duct. A border may be identified at the apex of the cells, which has slightly different optical properties from the remainder of the cell. Under optimum conditions faint striations, oriented parallel to the long axis of the cell, are seen in the border. These are difficult to resolve at the light microscopic level, but with electron microscopy, these striations are seen to be precisely arranged microvilli, containing cores of actin filaments. At the apex of these cells note the pink line, which indicates the presence of the basal bodies that give rise to the cilia. During prophase, the nuclear envelope disperses, replicated chromosomes condense, and the two sister chromatids become attached at a site called the centromere. At anaphase B, the sister chromatids continue to migrate toward the poles and the microtubules of the spindle elongate. During telophase, the sister chromatids reach the poles, the nuclear envelope re-forms and the chromosomes decondense. There are examples of cells at all stanges of the cell cycle since the cells are dividing asynchronously. Assess nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, mitotic spindle development, and location of condensed chromosomes in the whitefish mitotic cells. On the basis of these parameters, identify and determine the distinguishing features of cells in prophase, metaphase, anaphase (A and B) and telophase.
The extensive vacuolization of the granulosa luteal cells is due to the extraction of its abundant lipid droplets cheap 100mg avana mastercard erectile dysfunction at 18. This reflects the importance of the corpus luteum (particularly the granulosa lutein cells) as the primary ovarian source of the steroid hormone progesterone order generic avana from india food that causes erectile dysfunction. Be certain that you understand the changes that occur within the follicle during follicular development. These folds decrease progressively from the ovarian (infundibular) end of the tube to the uterine (isthmus) portion. The uterine tubes are a common site of occlusion after pelvic inflammatory disease, resulting in sterility. It is important to understand the interrelationships among the pituitary, ovary, and uterus during different stages of the menstrual cycle. The proliferative stage follows menstruation and is characterized by the repair of the endometrium and the proliferation of relatively straight, tubular uterine glands. Note the rather dense, cellular appearance of the endometrial stroma (region between glands) at this stage. Left to right: spongy zone, stratum basale, myometrium What is the primary ovarian hormone stimulating the endometrium during this stage? There has been a considerable increase in glandular development, characterized by their convoluted and "saw- toothed" appearance in sections. The glands are Secretory endometrium 72 frequently distended by a lightly acidophilic secretion rich in glycogen and this serves as an important source of nutrients to the developing embryo prior to implantation. Note the coiled arterioles in the endometrium, and be certain that you understand the significance of the arterial supply to the endometrium. Locate at higher magnification some of the mucus-secreting epithelial cells, which line the cervical mucosa. Note also the abrupt transition between the simple columnar epithelium of the endocervix and the stratified squamous epithelium of the ectocervix. The bulk of the wall of the cervix is made up of bundles of smooth muscle interlaced with connective tissue. In what other regions of the body does one observe an abrupt junction between simple columnar and stratified epithelia? The period of placentation is initiated by the attachment of the blastocyst to the endometrium, and it is terminated by the delivery of the newborn infant at the time of parturition. The placenta is the first organ to be differentiated, and performs functions analogous to those of the lung (gas exchange), intestine (nutrient absorption), kidney (excretion and ion regulation), liver (synthesis of serum proteins, steroid metabolism), pituitary (synthesis of hormones including gonadotropic and prolactin-like hormones), and gonads (incomplete synthesis of progestins and estrogens). The fetal portion of the placenta consists of the chorionic plate, composed of an outer layer of trophoblast and an inner layer of vascularized extra- embryonic mesodermal connective tissue. The bulk of the placenta fetalis consists of outgrowths of villi from the surface of the chorionic plate. The villi are sectioned in many 73 different planes, and their attachment to the chorionic plate may not be evident. Attached to the inner (fetal) surface of the chorionic plate is the amnion, consisting of an inner squamous amniotic epithelium and an outer layer of avascular mesoderm. Study the chorionic villi in detail, and identify all of the layers that separate the maternal and fetal blood. Gases, nutrients, metabolites and other substances must pass through these layers to move from one circulation to the other. In life maternal blood fills the intervillous space, but it is generally washed out during tissue preparation. Note the loose appearance of the cells forming the cores of the villi, and compare this with the condition in the villi at 6 months gestational age. Occasional nucleated fetal red blood cells, characteristic of earlier stages, can still be observed in the fetal vessels of the villi. Note the abundance and location of the fetal capillaries, the sparsity of the cytotrophoblast, and the nature of the syncytiotrophoblast. Be certain that you know the layers that form the separation between fetal and maternal blood in the placenta. This network of ducts begins at the nipple with the excretory lactiferous duct, which branches as it extends into the collagen and adipose tissue of the breast until it eventually branches into terminal duct lobular units. The terminal duct lobular unit consists of interlobular stroma, interlobular duct, terminal duct and acini, and surrounding fat. With higher power, note that the ducts and acini are lined by simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium and surrounding myoepithelial cells. There is abundant connective tissue with embedded lactiferous ducts, ending in minimal lobule formation #69 Breast, Lactating, Osmium fixation Unsaturated lipid in the apical cytoplasm of the alveolar cells and in the milk in the lumina is stained black by reduced osmium tetroxide. Because osmium penetrates very poorly the tissue is well stained only at the periphery of the section. The connective tissue surrounding the alveolus is much more delicate (although compressed here) and is continuous with the papillary layer of the dermis. The digestive system consists of the oral cavity, the pharynx, the alimentary tract (canal), and the anal canal. There are both intrinsic and extrinsic glands, which may secrete digestive enzymes or mucus to facilitate the digestion and transport of ingested food. The extrinsic digestive glands are the major salivary glands including the parotid, sublingual and submandibular (submaxillary) glands; the pancreas; and the liver. Proceeding outward from the lumen these are: (1) the mucosa (mucous membrane), (2) the submucosa, (3) the muscularis (muscularis externa), and (4) the adventitia or serosa. The mucosa has three components: (a) the epithelium and its underlying basement membrane, (b) a thin underlying layer of loose, cellular connective tissue, the lamina propria, and (c) a relatively thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae. The submucosa is composed of a layer of dense, irregularly arranged connective tissue that contains nervous tissue (the submucosal plexus of Meissner) as well as blood vessels. The muscularis externa consists of at least 2 layers of smooth muscle, an inner circular and outer longitudinal layer. Connective tissue separating the muscle layers contains nerves (myenteric plexus of Auerbach) and blood vessels. The major salivary glands arise as invaginations of the oral epithelium during the second month of embryonic development, and they are involved with the secretion of the watery, mucus, and enzymatic content of saliva. The three types of cell within the taste bud are sensory, supporting, and basal, but you should not attempt to distinguish them. In some sections the ducts of these glands may be seen to drain into the furrow of the circumvallate papilla. There is considerable lymphatic invasion, particularly around the secretory portions of the serous glands. The well-developed muscularis externa and the stratified squamous epithelial lining are well adapted for the rapid transport of food from the pharynx to the stomach. Diagnostic features of the esophagus are the combination of stratified squamous surface epithelium and the considerable thickness of the muscularis mucosae (up to 0. The upper third of the muscularis externa contains mostly skeletal muscle, the middle third contains a mixture of skeletal and smooth, and the lower third contains only smooth muscle. Use this slide to review the histology of smooth and skeletal muscle, comparing them with the adjacent connective tissue of both the lamina propria and the submucosa.